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GENTAUR Europe

 GENTAUR Europe BVBA
Voortstraat 49, 1910 Kampenhout BELGIUM
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Gentaur Bulgaria

 GENTAUR BULGARIA
53 Iskar Str. 1191 Kokalyane, Sofia
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    GENTAUR France

     GENTAUR France SARL
    9, rue Lagrange, 75005 Paris 
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    Gentaur Germany

      GmbH Marienbongard 20
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    Gentaur London

     GENTAUR Ltd. 
    Howard Frank Turnberry House 
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    Whetstone London N20 9BH 
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     GENTAUR Poland Sp. z o.o. 

    ul. Grunwaldzka 88/A m.2

    81-771 Sopot, Poland
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     GENTAUR Nederland BV
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    Tel 0208-080893 
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    Gentaur Italy

     GENTAUR SRL IVA IT03841300167

    Piazza Giacomo Matteotti, 6, 24122 Bergamo
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    PCR

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biochemical technology in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. Developed in 1983 by Kary Mullis, PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of applications.These include DNA cloning for sequencing, DNA-based phylogeny, or functional analysis of genes; the diagnosis of hereditary diseases; the identification of genetic fingerprints (used in forensic sciences and paternity testing); and the detection and diagnosis of infectious diseases. In 1993, Mullis was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry along with Michael Smith for his work on PCR. The method relies on thermal cycling, consisting of cycles of repeated heating and cooling of the reaction for DNA melting and enzymatic replication of the DNA. Primers (short DNA fragments) containing sequences complementary to the target region along with a DNA polymerase (after which the method is named) are key components to enable selective and repeated amplification. As PCR progresses, the DNA generated is itself used as a template for replication, setting in motion a chain reaction in which the DNA template is exponentially amplified. PCR can be extensively modified to perform a wide array of genetic manipulations.

    Polymerase chain reaction

     

    Almost all PCR applications employ a heat-stable DNA polymerase, such as Taq polymerase, an enzyme originally isolated from the bacterium Thermus aquaticus. This DNA polymerase enzymatically assembles a new DNA strand from DNA building-blocks, the nucleotides, by using single-stranded DNA as a template and DNA oligonucleotides (also called DNA primers), which are required for initiation of DNA synthesis. The vast majority of PCR methods use thermal cycling, i.e., alternately heating and cooling the PCR sample to a defined series of temperature steps. These thermal cycling steps are necessary first to physically separate the two strands in a DNA double helix at a high temperature in a process called DNA melting. At a lower temperature, each strand is then used as the template in DNA synthesis by the DNA polymerase to selectively amplify the target DNA. The selectivity of PCR results from the use of primers that are complementary to the DNA region targeted for amplification under specific thermal cycling conditions.