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    News

    gentaur-gene-mutationRecently identified gene mutation increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes tenfold. It was found in the DNA of the population of Greenland.
     
    The study by scientists from Copenhagen gives a new perspective on innate predisposition and the real danger of diabetes.
     
    Of course, the presence of the mutation TBC1D4, is not confined only within the largest island on the planet. It has already detected among many Europeans suffering from diabetes.
     
    Its "arms" consists in the development of insulin resistance in muscle.
     
    The discovery allows for harder prevention of diseases and the development of new techniques for treatment.
     
    "We know that each of us has his heredity, which, unfortunately, when diabetes is critical. It is not enough to become diabetics. We do not inherit the disease, and the tendency of its manifestation.
     
    Our meeting with a number of external factors such as viruses, chemicals, and other stressful situations may trigger a series of autoimmune processes in our body that damage and destroy cells of the pancreas that produce the hormone insulin, "comment the investigators.
     
    They point out that diabetes is not a disease, as it causes many damages to the human body.
     
    "We can not change our heredity, but we can change our lifestyle.
     
    If you take care of your health in time through healthy eating and daily physical activity we can gain skills for coping with stress alone can reduce the likelihood of falling ill from diabetes, "concluded the report by researchers from Copenhagen.

    Gentaur proteinProtein in the body can improve its ability to detect and treat viral infections such as influenza and hepatitis C. This conclusion leads a laboratory study by researchers from the University Institute of cancer in Pittsburgh, USA.
     
    To start playback in the body, the virus actually "invaded" cells and "takes" control over them.
     
    Experts explain that, despite progress in the field of vaccines and treatment diseases caused by viral infections remain among the leading causes of death in the world. According to them, there is a need for a new type of security and the new discovery appears to be promising for further studies.
     
    Scientists isolated protein of similar oligoadenylate synthetase-occurring in humans, suffering from liver cancer, prichinen of hepatitis C. When the Expert increase the levels of this protein in human cells, observed inhibition of virus replication.
     
    In later study found that murine organisms in which there is no presence of the protein are susceptible to a large extent of a viral infection, in comparison to those who have it.

    Viruses affect the ribonucleic acid (RNA), including hepatitis C, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, using RNA as the genetic material, when played back.
     
    The types of treatment, based on the protein like oligoadenylate synthetase, can enhance the ability of cells to detect RNA, used by the virus, and thus to activate the immune system to stop its reproduction.

    Monday, 09 June 2014 16:29

    Gene editing treat rare liver disease

    Using a new system of genetic editing based on bacterial proteins by researchers from MIT cured rare liver disease caused by a single genetic mutation.gentaur-gene

    The findings described in the edition of Nature Biotechnology, provide the first evidence that the technique of editing of a gene known as CRISPR, can reverse disease symptoms.

    CRISPR, which offers an easy way to crop the mutated DNA and replacement with the correct sequence has the potential to treat many genetic diseases, according to the research team.

    Recently developed CRISPR system relies on cellular mechanism that bacteria use to protect themselves from viral infection.

    Researchers have copied this cell system for the creation of gene-editing complexes, including DNA.

    They are cut enzyme called Cas9, bound to the RNA strand, which can be programmed to bind to a specific genomic sequence.

    Meanwhile, researchers deliver DNA template strand.

    When repairing cell damage resulting from Cas9, scientists introduced the template DNA in the genome.

    Scientists predict that this type of revision of the genome one day could help in the treatment of diseases such as hemophilia, Huntington's disease, and the like, caused by a single mutation.

    There are other systems developed on the basis of genetic editing of DNA enzymes known as nucleases, but these complexes can be expensive and difficult to assemble.

    In contrast, CRISPR is very easy to configure and customize equipment.

    hemoglobin-gentaurThe hemoglobin molecule is composed of four polypeptide chains of the protein globin. In addition, all of these chains contain nonprotein ferruginous material - heme, which has a direct role in the binding and transport of oxygen.

    Globinat is a protein such as albumin, that contain amino acid residues. Hema and globinat influence. Globinat alters the properties of heme so as to bind the oxygen. HEMA provides stability of globin against the action of acids, temperature, the action of enzymes and specific features of the crystallization thereof.

    In adults, 98% of the hemoglobin type A (HbA), in the fetus and newborn is mostly type F (HbF), which in the first days after birth, changes in HbA.

    Congenital disorders and diseases of the hematopoietic system appear abnormal types of hemoglobin as methemoglobin, which is unable to carry oxygen. In blood of healthy persons methaemoglobin in minor amounts. Methaemoglobin binds with hydrocyanic (senile) acid and other substances, so is used in medicine in such poisoning.


    Normal hemoglobin levels in men ranged from 135-160 g / l in women - 120-140 g / l


    Formation and decomposition of hemoglobin
    The biosynthesis of hemoglobin was obtained in young erythrocytes, which penetrate into the iron atoms. Globinat formed from amino acids, i.e. at the usual time of synthesis of proteins.

    Disintegration of hemoglobin begins in erythrocytes, which are at the end of their life cycle. In the process of decomposition to yield derivative verdoglobin having green color. It is unstable and falls apart easily. Heme disintegrates in cells of the liver, bone marrow and spleen to form yellow pigments. In this process, the iron atoms were removed, which again is connected with the erythrocytes to form new molecules heme.


    Properties of hemoglobin
    The main biological role of hemoglobin is its participation in the process of exchange of gaseous substances from the environment and the body. Hemoglobin provides oxygen transport in the blood from the lungs to the tissues and transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. The similarity of the hemoglobin molecule oxide is three times greater than with the oxygen molecules, which determines the properties of high toxic carbon monoxide. Therefore, when the concentration of carbon monoxide in the air of 0,1% more than half of hemoglobin in the blood is not bound with oxygen and carbon monoxide. In this form carboxyhemoglobin which can not transport oxygen.


    Another important function of hemoglobin is that of maintaining the acid-base balance in the body.


    Changes in hemoglobin
    Upon failure of the hemoglobin in erythrocytes disrupting metabolism in cells. Low hemoglobin specific for iron deficiency anemia, which most commonly are caused by chronic blood loss or poor nutrition, especially when excludes the consumption of animal protein.

    High hemoglobin may be normal or physiological phenomenon feature of the disease. For example, in people living in high mountains register compensatory increase in the level of hemoglobin in the blood, due to the reduced content of oxygen in the air.

    Deficiency of some B vitamins leads to changes in the blood with high hemoglobin and decrease the number of red blood cells - malignant anemia. In certain cardiovascular and pulmonary disorders also can be observed high hemoglobin (the number of red blood cells but does not change), since disturbed blood flow in tissues do not receive oxygen.

    Hemoglobin is one of the most important health indicators and indicators of change should seek competent medical opinion.

    Wednesday, 28 May 2014 10:30

    How and why to preserve stem cells?

    genatur stem cellStem cells are the progenitors of all tissues and organs in our body. They are versatile building material , without which our body could not grow and develop, or to recover from injuries and diseases.
     
    When expecting a baby , we are able to derive stem cells at birth.
     
    Stored under special conditions , they can keep their valuable properties for years, thus becoming an important resource for the future treatment of the child and his family.
     
    Two types of cells can be extracted at birth - hematopoietic ( blood from the umbilical cord ) and mesenchymal ( tissue from the umbilical cord ) . They are not interchangeable - the qualities and applications vary widely .
     
    Stem cells are used in medicine for more than half a century , the most popular example of such treatment is bone marrow transplantation.
     
    The cells from cord blood are very similar to those in the bone marrow , but they are superior in many respects - they have a higher potential , which allows the use of lower doses and less mature , thus making it possible to use them in a lower degree of compatibility and lowers the risk of rejection .
     
    Approved therapies is constantly growing in the last decade the number has doubled. Underway are hundreds of new trials as a basis for life-saving treatment of malignant blood diseases , medicine Pinning Hopes on these cells and diagnoses affecting quality of life, such as cerebral palsy and type 1 diabetes.
     
    Today there is still a large group of applications - that of regenerative medicine , one of the newest and fastest growing share of medical science that uses stem cells to restore its own tissues and organs of the patient.
     
    Cells stored at birth, can be used both for the child and family members , when a sufficient degree of compatibility. Six of the ten samples transplanted cord blood in the world are used to treat a sibling or parent. Complete matching antigens can be expected only in identical twins .
     
    In all other cases there is no 100% guarantee.
     
    Collection of blood and tissue from the umbilical cord to extract stem cells at birth is easy and painless procedure that poses no risk either to the mother or the baby.
     
    It is carried out by our own team of bank storage and does not violate the normal course of work on the midwifery team. The quantity of cells is different for every baby and reliable performance every step of the collection and laboratory processing of the sample is crucial for the quality of her
     
    It is necessary to make an informed choice by examining the procedures and conditions of the various banks. First you must make sure that the necessary registrations and licenses.
     
    Stem cell in the country are governed by detailed regulations and the right to perform them only have tissue banks with a valid authorization from the Executive Agency for Transplantation at the Ministry of Health.
     
    The financial side is often a major criterion for many families , so it is better to check whether all costs are included in the price .
     
    In our society there is an underlying view that the storage of umbilical stem cells is prohibitively expensive , boutique service units wealthy parents. Indeed, in the first years in which these services into Bulgaria , the cost of processing and storage for 20 years often was relatively much higher than the cost of similar services abroad. Today this is not so .

    Investment in reliable modern equipment , attracting a team of established professionals with experience and positive growth of competition significantly contributed to the ability to offer affordable and reasonable price for a really very specific and high-tech service.

    The ease of future parents, this service is offered at several possible financial schemes with 50% discount for the second twin , as well as a second contract with the bank.
     
    What is more important than the price , however , is the reliability of the process of making , transporting , testing, laboratory processing and storage of the cells. Significant advantage by banks that have terms to perform critical processing of cells -the-art technology with the shortest possible stay after birth.
     
    To ensure the security of storage throughout the term of the contract are necessary stkriktni systems for access control and temperature regime .
     
    Each banking cord blood can be used for therapy , whether private banking or extracted from public banks - the only requirement is a sufficient degree of histocompatibility . The advantage of private banking family in this case is that kinship transplants have shown better results than unrelated .
     
    It should be borne in mind that to a large extent histocompatibility complex indicates greater similarity in the same ethnic group . This means that in practice for patients from smaller ethnic groups such as Bulgarian is much more difficult to find a suitable donor in the big banks and donor pools.

    In need of autologous stem cell therapy umbilical cord only option is private banking family , as only this way the stored cells remain the exclusive property of the child and are available for future use. Reliable private stem cell banks have technological solutions and control systems using a risk of loss of the sample is minimized.
     
    Widely discussed disadvantage of private banking is that it is not free - in fact , however, the use of bone marrow donor is not free , nor extraction of stem cells from peripheral blood.

    Monday, 26 May 2014 10:15

    Erythropoietin, EPO

    Gentaur ErythropoietinI. Definition

    Erythropoietin is glikoproteid hormone that is a growth factor with respect to erythropoiesis . Human erythropoietin is a polypeptide consisting of 165 amino acids. It can stimulate alone or with the participation of other cytokines , growth and development of the precursors of erythrocytes in the bone marrow , causing an increase in the number of red blood cells.

    90% of erythropoietin in adults is synthesized and secreted by interstitial cortical kidney fibroblasts , in response to a reduced supply of oxygen to the tissues . The remaining 10 % of EPO are synthesized by hepatocytes and Ito- interstitial cells of the liver ( relevant in the fetal and perinatal ) . Erythropoietin secretion is controlled by the level of oxygen saturation of the blood. Under conditions of hypoxia ( lack of oxygen to cells and tissues ) , erythropoietin plasma increases. Hypoxia may be caused by anemia , reduced oxygen - carrying capacity , decreased oxygen saturation of the hemoglobin molecules and the like. There is an assumption that there is a reverse correlation between the serum levels of EPO and the amount of red blood cells.
     

    Additional features of EPO nehemopoetichni : can induce vasoconstriction and hypertension associated with that stimulates angiogenesis and proliferation of smooth muscle fibers, may increase the absorption of iron by the inhibition of the hormone hepsidin . Studies have reported that EPO influences neuronal protection in conditions of hypoxia (e.g. stroke , etc.) , improves memory . Administration of EPO may be effective for treating depression.

    II. Test method:

     
    ELISA " sandwich principle." EPO ELISA assay using two different mouse monoclonal antibodies specifically directed against different regions of the human EPO .
     
    III. Content and clinical significance :

    Clinical indications for the study of indicators:
     - Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of anemia and polycythemia ;
     - To help predict and monitor the response to treatment with recombinant erythropoietin in patients with anemia ;

    Quantification of EPO serum aid in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of anemia and erythrocytosis .


    1. Anemia :
     Aplastic , haemolytic and iron deficiency anemia - the values ​​of EPO were increased ;
     
     Anemia of kidney disease and certain other diseases ( e.g., AIDS), - the values ​​of EPO are low ;

    Low , the concentration of EPO may be an early signal of kidney transplant rejection .

    EPO can also be used for monitoring of patients with AIDS of AZT- therapy . The increase in EPO in these patients is a signal that anemia in ongoing AZT- therapy due to hypoplasia / aplasia of the red blood cell .


    2 . Upon erythrocytosis :
    Polycythemia vera (primary erythrocytosis ) is a result of autonomous proliferation of the 3 lines of blood , with prevalence of erythropoiesis . In these cases, values ​​of EPO are low.


    Secondary polycythemia ( poliglobulii ) if it is off dehydration (relative erythrocytosis ) is due to the increase in EPO ( secondary stimulation eritopoezata ) due to various reasons :
    Individual elevated EPO - in paraneoplastic syndromes ( with hypernephroma , ovarian carcinoma , tumors of the cerebellum and the like . , In these cases, the EPO may be used as a tumor marker ) in polycystic kidney disease , familial erythrocytosis ;
     
    Compensatory increase in EPO - in hypoxia (residing at high altitudes , pulmonary disease , heart disease ) , Disability hemoglobin ( congenital methemoglobinemia , carboxyhemoglobin ) medications ;

    For diagnostic purposes , the test results should always be assessed in accordance with the patient's history , clinical and other studies .
     
    IV. Material for testing : serum

    Important requirements for sampling : it is blood clotting retrahirane clot to become 2 - 8 ° C or on ice. Samples coagulated at room temperature can produce lower amounts of EPO . The separated serum after centrifugation was frozen at -15 ° C or lower temperature , and thus is transported , if needed.

    Thursday, 22 May 2014 09:46

    Stem cell therapy cure heart

    Innovative stem cell therapy shows promise in treating cardiovascular disease , reports The Cochrane Library.gentaur stem cells
     
    It was developed by scientists from London and will be used in addition to conventional treatment methods. By her doctors of stem cells from the bone marrow of the patient, which will then be injected into the damaged heart.
     
    It is believed that they release the chemical signals that increase activity of the stem cells of the heart. The therapy is used mainly for the treatment of chronic heart failure and coronary artery disease .
     
    So far, the experiments offer hope that this technique znaitelno reduce deaths from heart trouble .
     
    Cardiovascular disease affects many people , the age limit drops more and more . They are the leading cause of death globally.
     
    According to the World Health Organization cardiovascular disease die each year over 17 million people. This equates to 30% of global deaths a year. Of these, nearly 7 million were due to coronary heart disease, and about 9 million deaths are related in one way or another with high blood pressure.
     
    WHO forecasts are cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of mortality in the coming decades. Expected mortality of them exceeded 23 million a year by 2030

    Implementation of the type of treatment , including stem cells would improve and prolong the lives of patients with a heart condition .

    Gentaur new geneU.S. scientists have identified a gene in the gray matter of the brain, which they say is responsible for intelligence.
     
    These are proteins called " Clotho " which raises brain skills and increases IQ by six points , regardless of the age of the person.
     
    Researchers examined the cerebral cortex.
     
    According to previous studies cortical thickness is closely related to mental abilities , memory, attention , perceptual awareness , thought and language , but so far there is no evidence exactly which genes are associated with these laws .
     
    It turns out that " Clotho " is a powerful stimulant of learning , thinking and memory. This is because the protein increases the strength of connections between nerve cells in the brain.
     
    Scientists hope that this discovery will help in the treatment and prevention of various types of dementia.
     
    They found that " Clotho " plays a key role in many processes related to starenieto . It is directly related to life expectancy and susceptibility to stroke.
     
    Where in this gene has been observed a defect , people start aging prematurely, but when it is stimulated , life could be extended by a few years , while slow bone loss , prevents blood clots occur on and improves overall health of the elderly .
     
    Scientists warn that no matter how miraculous it seems this gene probably causes some side effects in the body.
     
    During the experiment, they noticed that individuals whose lives went on , proved to much smaller capacities for multiplication.
     
    It is also likely " Clotho " cause predisposition to disease of diabetes .

    Infectious diseases caused by microbes . These are small organisms that are invisible to the naked eye , and " burst " in the body , in order to reproduce . The symptoms caused by the infection will depend on the location , the nature of the infection and the type of microbe .
     
    Gentaur virus VS bacteriaThe two main types of microbes are bacteria and viruses. Viruses are the smallest size of all germs. They can " attack " almost every living organism . Viruses used for the host of other organisms , such as man. This means that the virus invades a cell in the body and parts thereof used in order to reproduce .
     
    Thus produced hundreds of new viruses which can spread throughout the body. They can also infect new organisms. Viruses can not survive outside the host organism for long. Can live for several seconds to a few minutes after you leave .
     
    Bacteria are much larger size of viruses. They live almost everywhere , and many of them do not cause infections. Bacteria reproduce by division. If conditions are favorable - temperature, nutrient availability - some species can reproduce every 20 minutes.
     
    Intestines contain a large number of bacteria. Usually they do not cause problems. In many cases even useful - for example, there are bacteria that aid digestion. However , if the immune system is weak , may occur problems such as diarrhea , constipation or cramping.
     
    Viruses and bacteria can cause infection. Local infection leads to redness and swelling . The fabric may also become warm and painful. Typical symptoms of a viral or bacterial infection include fever , fatigue and weakness . Overall, the viral infection is simple and complaints subside on its own.
     
    It is difficult to destroy viruses. Specific medications have been developed that are aimed at specific types .
     
    Bacterial infections also usually resolves on its own. If this is not the case, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics.
     
    It is important to prevent the spread of germs. For this purpose good hygiene plays an important role .

     

    proffemaleScientists from The University of Manchester have discovered that 'lonely' microbes are more likely to mutate, resulting in higher rates of antibiotic resistance.

    The study, published today in Nature Communications and jointly funded by The Wellcome Trust and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, explored the mutation rates of E. coli.

    Researchers found out that the rate of mutation varied according to how many of the bacteria there were. Surprisingly, they discovered that more bacteria gave fewer mutations.

    Meanwhile more 'lonely' bacteria developed greater resistance to the well-known antibiotic Rifampicin, used to treat tuberculosis.

    Dr Chris Knight joint lead author on the study with Dr. Rok Krašovec from The University of Manchester, said: "What we were looking for was a connection between the environment and the ability of bacteria to develop the resistance to antibiotics. We discovered that the rate at which E. coli mutates depends upon how many 'friends' it has around. It seems that more lonely organisms are more likely to mutate."

    This change of the mutation rate is controlled by a form of social communication known as quorum sensing – this is the way bacteria communicate to let each other know how much of a crowd there is. This involves the release of signalling molecules by bacteria when in a dense population to help the organisms understand their surrounding environment and coordinate behaviour to improve their defence mechanisms and adapt to the availability of nutrients.

    Dr. Krašovec said: "We were able to change their mutation rates by changing who they shared a test tube with, which could mean that bacteria manipulate each other's mutation rates. It also suggests that mutation rates could be affected when bacteria are put at low densities for instance by a person taking antibiotics."

    The rate of mutation was found to be dependent on the gene luxS which is known to be involved in quorum sensing in a wide range of bacteria.

    The team now hopes to find ways to control this signalling for medical applications in a future study funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.

    "Eventually this might lead to interventions to control mutation rates, for instance to minimise the evolution of antibiotic resistance, allowing antibiotics to work better," said Dr Knight.

    Dr Mike Turner, Head of Infection and Immunobiology at the Wellcome Trust said: "Antibiotic resistance is a real threat to disease control and public health today. Any insight into the origins of such resistance is valuable in the fight to prevent it. Chris Knight and his team have gained a fundamental understanding of bacterial communication and the development of mutations which in the long run could contribute to more potent antibiotics and better control of bacterial disease".