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    Displaying items by tag: blood cells

    White blood cells are reign as the heroes of the immune system. When the infection, the cells produced in the bone marrow, the race through the blood to combat pathogens. But new research shows that different bodies may also play a role in immune defense, which is essentially your own hero. In a study of a rare and deadly brain infection, researchers at Rockefeller University have discovered that the brain cells of healthy people can produce their own immune system molecules, demonstrating the "intrinsic immunity" that is crucial to stop the infection.

    Interfering with interferon Herpes simplex virus-infected neurons

    Interfering with interferon. Herpes simplex virus-infected neurons (above)
    are from patients with a genetic defect that impairs their brain’s ability to make
    interferon, an important immune system protein, and leaves their brain
    cells unable to fight off the infection. Healthy people, in turn,
    have an intrinsic immune response to the virus. (Credit: Image courtesy of Rockefeller University)


    Shen-Ying Zhang, clinical researcher at St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, has been studying children with herpes simplex encephalitis, a potentially deadly brain infection herpes virus, HSV-1, which may be important to brain damage. Scientists already knew from previous work that children with encephalitis have a genetic defect that affects the functions of the immune system receptor - Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) - in the brain. For this study we wanted to see how a defect in TLR3 prevent the brain's ability to fight herpes infection.
    When TLR3 recognizes pathogen that causes an immune response that causes the release of proteins known as interferons, and ringing "interfere" with the replication of the pathogen. Most commonly associated with white blood cells that are present within the body, but in this case researchers examines the existence of the receptor in neurons and other brain cells.
    "One interesting thing for these patients is that they have none of the other symptoms, the most frequent herpes. They had an infection of the skin or mouth only in their brains. Therefore hypothesis that TLR3 responses should be specifically responsible for the maintenance of herpes virus infects the brain and is not necessary in other parts of the body, "says Zhang.
    The laboratory, directed by Jean-Laurent Casanova, together with scientists from Harvard Medical School and the Institute of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer to create induced pluripotent stem cells. Made from the patient's own tissue, the stem cells are converted into cells of the central nervous system, which leads to patient genetic defects. Zhang cells exposed to HSV-1 and synthetic double-stranded RNA, which mimics the product of the virus that stimulates Toll-like receptor activity. By measuring the levels of interferon, Zhang revealed that TLR3 response of patients was in fact defective, cells were making these important immune system proteins, preventing them from fighting infection.
    Zhang also exposed to the blood cells of patients with the virus and it was found that TLR3 defect is no problem there, as in the brain - interferons were released in another manner.
    Because Toll-like receptors in neurons was vital to prevent infection, encephalitis, researchers concluded that brain cells use as an internal mechanism to fight infection, rather than relying on the white blood cells. When the function deteriorates, patients who can not be improved.
    "This is proof of intrinsic immunity, recently discovered function of the immune system," says Zhang. "It is very likely that other organs also have their own specific tools to fight infection."
    Researchers are putting together a pilot study to test interferon-based therapy in patients with encephalitis, believing that will help speed recovery and increase survival when used in combination with antiviral drugs. They have also examined whether the brain shows intrinsic immunity to other viral infections.

    Published in News

    Cloned MouseScientists in Japan cloned a mouse from a drop of blood. Moving blood cells taken from the tail of the mouse donor were used to create the clone, said researchers from the center Ricken Bioresources. Some time ago the same scientists have created nearly 600 exact genetic copies of a mouse.

    Mice were cloned from different sources of donor cells, including white blood cells of the lymph nodes, bone marrow and liver. Japanese researchers studied whether the moving blood cells can be used for cloning. Their goal was to find an easy source of donor cells for cloning valuable scientifically types of laboratory mice.

    Scientists led by Atsuo Ogura of Bioresources Rikes center in Tsukuba, blood taken from the tail of a mouse donor, isolated white blood cells and used kernel cloning experiments using the same technique as for the cloning of Dolly the sheep in Edinburgh.

    The process, known as somatic cell nuclear transfer involving transfer of the nucleus from a cell in the adult body as blood cells or skin unfertilized egg, which was removed the nucleus. Scientists, whose research was published in the journal Biology of Reproduction, said that it shows for the first time that mice can be cloned using the nucleus of peripheral blood cells.

    "These cells can be used to clone immediately after isolation, without requiring euthanasia of donor" complemented researchers.

    Published in News