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    Displaying items by tag: viruses

    Infectious diseases caused by microbes . These are small organisms that are invisible to the naked eye , and " burst " in the body , in order to reproduce . The symptoms caused by the infection will depend on the location , the nature of the infection and the type of microbe .
     
    Gentaur virus VS bacteriaThe two main types of microbes are bacteria and viruses. Viruses are the smallest size of all germs. They can " attack " almost every living organism . Viruses used for the host of other organisms , such as man. This means that the virus invades a cell in the body and parts thereof used in order to reproduce .
     
    Thus produced hundreds of new viruses which can spread throughout the body. They can also infect new organisms. Viruses can not survive outside the host organism for long. Can live for several seconds to a few minutes after you leave .
     
    Bacteria are much larger size of viruses. They live almost everywhere , and many of them do not cause infections. Bacteria reproduce by division. If conditions are favorable - temperature, nutrient availability - some species can reproduce every 20 minutes.
     
    Intestines contain a large number of bacteria. Usually they do not cause problems. In many cases even useful - for example, there are bacteria that aid digestion. However , if the immune system is weak , may occur problems such as diarrhea , constipation or cramping.
     
    Viruses and bacteria can cause infection. Local infection leads to redness and swelling . The fabric may also become warm and painful. Typical symptoms of a viral or bacterial infection include fever , fatigue and weakness . Overall, the viral infection is simple and complaints subside on its own.
     
    It is difficult to destroy viruses. Specific medications have been developed that are aimed at specific types .
     
    Bacterial infections also usually resolves on its own. If this is not the case, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics.
     
    It is important to prevent the spread of germs. For this purpose good hygiene plays an important role .

     

    Published in News

    hpv-human-papillomavirus-knock-out-stem-cell-characterization-teratoma-formation-embryoid-body-formation-snl-feeder-pluripotencyExperimental vaccine against cancer progression showed a broad protection against the virus that carries the risk of developing tumors. Innovative vaccine is the U.S. pharmaceutical company Merck & Co.

    In its report, the vaccine makers explained that the survey results support the company's plan to submit a new vaccine approved in the U.S. by the end of the year. In the event that it is received, the new vaccine can be introduced next year.

    Gardasil is the first vaccine company that was developed in 2006 It protects against several strains of the virus: 6, 11, 16 and 18, as the risk for cervical cancer are strains 16 and 18, and 6 and 11 cause the formation of genital warts. The company's new vaccine offers greater protection.

    Company Merck & Co has already conducted clinical trials to test the safety and efficacy of the new vaccine, and the results should be presented at a special meeting of doctors in Florence, Italy this week, said the report.

    Published in News

    pandoravirus-cells-antibodies-gentaurWith the discovery of Mimivirus ten years ago and, more recently, Megavirus chilensis, researchers thought they had reached the farthest corners of the viral world in terms of size and genetic complexity. With a diameter in the region of a micrometer and a genome incorporating more than 1,100 genes, these giant viruses, which infect amoebas of the Acanthamoeba genus, had already largely encroached on areas previously thought to be the exclusive domain of bacteria. For the sake of comparison, common viruses such as the influenza or AIDS viruses only contain around ten genes each.

    In the article published in Science, the researchers announced they had discovered two new giant viruses:

    • - Pandoravirus salinus, on the coast of Chile;
    • - Pandoravirus dulcis, in a freshwater pond in Melbourne, Australia.

     

    Detailed analysis has shown that these first two Pandoraviruses have virtually nothing in common with previously characterized giant viruses. What's more, only a very small percentage (6%) of proteins encoded byPandoravirus salinus are similar to those already identified in other viruses or cellular organisms. With a genome of this size,Pandoravirus salinus has just demonstrated that viruses can be more complex than some eukaryotic cells. Another unusual feature of Pandoraviruses is that they have no gene allowing them to build a protein like the capsid protein, which is the basic building block of traditional viruses.

    Despite all these novel properties, Pandoraviruses display the essential characteristics of other viruses in that they contain no ribosome, produce no energy and do not divide.

    This groundbreaking research included an analysis of thePandoravirus salinus proteome, which proved that the proteins making it up are consistent with those predicted by the virus' genome sequence. Pandoraviruses thus use the universal genetic code shared by all living organisms on the planet.

    This shows just how much more there is to learn regarding microscopic biodiversity as soon as new environments are considered. The simultaneous discovery of two specimens of this new virus family in sediments located 15,000 km apart indicates that Pandoraviruses, which were completely unknown until now, are very likely not rare.

    It definitively bridges the gap between viruses and cells -- a gap that was proclaimed as dogma at the very outset of modern virology back in the 1950s.

    It also suggests that cell life could have emerged with a far greater variety of pre-cellular forms than those conventionally considered, as the new giant virus has almost no equivalent among the three recognized domains of cellular life, namely eukaryota (or eukaryotes), eubacteria, and archaea.

    Published in News
    Tuesday, 16 July 2013 12:02

    Virus against tumor - who will win?

    myxoma-virus-rabbit-knockin-knock-out-mouse-ratWith the combination of myxoma virus and medications that suppress the immune system, it is possible to beat Glioblastoma multiforme - the most common and most lethal form of brain tumor, known to medicine.

    According to Dr. Peter Forsythe from the Center for Cancer Research "Moffitt" this therapy is effective even in the stage of the disease that many physicians would accept for the terminal. Another big plus of successful research is that the new treatment removes one of the most serious obstacles exist to date in the treatment of brain cancer: resistance to temozolomide.

    The new therapy is seen as a "target" for the oncolytic virus invades and destroys only the cancer cells, while chemotherapy affect any tissue of the patient. Myxoma virus that causes virulent diseases in rabbits will be used together with the immunosuppressant rapamycin.

    The precise mechanism by which rapamycin affects the infectious process in tumor cells is not yet well understood, but it is certainly effective - application in laboratory tests contribute to the destruction of more than 89% of the tumor cells by the virus.

    Therapy is now a candidate for clinical trials in humans, but the members of the research group carried out the study were confident of success. Florida State University, Texas, Calgary and the Center for Cancer Research of Ottawa devoted his most brilliant oncologists who are on track to achieve a revolution in the treatment of brain cancer.

    Buy Myxoma products from Gentaur

    Published in News

    We are currently offering a comprehensive panel of antibodies specific for human Norovirus, including GII.4 2012 Sydney strain.  MAB223P through MAB228P have been tested across a broad range of strains, as reported in the table below.  In addition to being broadly cross reactive to GII.4 genotypes, MAB227P has demonstrated the ability to block ligand binding in surrogate neutralization assays.  MAB228P, developed against GI.1 1968 virus like particles (VLPs), has been shown to recognize additional GI types.  There are currently five known genogroups, of which three cause human disease: GI, GII, and GIV.  According to the CDC, since 2002 GII.4 has been the most common cause of Norovirus outbreaks.

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    Published in Promos
    Friday, 14 June 2013 14:02

    WHO warns of new virus

    bronchial epithelial cellsWorld Health Organization calls on all health workers to watch vigilantly for signs of Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (BRS / MERS). Coronavirus is extremely deadly.
     
    The statement comes after the investigation of an outbreak of the disease in Saudi Arabia with 40 ill. 60% of cases are fatal outcome.

    Symptoms of viral diseases include acute renal failure, followed by severe pneumonia, which often leads to death. The first patient had a week fever, painful coughing, coughing and shortness of breath.

    The virus invades bronchial epithelial cells, and successfully overcomes the immune system, inhibit the production of interferon in the affected cells.

    There is still no effective form of prevention.

    United Nations is concerned that the virus can be spread among worshipers waiting to visit the Holy Land in Saudi Arabia next month during Ramadan, or the millions of believers who in October will head to Mecca for the annual pilgrimage - Hajj.

    Authorities fear that foreign workers temporarily residing in the kingdom also can transmit the virus while traveling to her home in other countries. This creates prerequisites for a global pandemic.

    So far, tourists have emanated virus to the UK, France, Germany and Italy. Infected seen more in Jordan, Qatar, Tunisia and the United Arab Emirates.

    Published in News

    13338 influenzaIn an attempt to better understand why some viruses like influenza, Ebola and West Nile virus so lethal, a team of U.S. researchers believe to model the response of the body to viral pathogens.

    The study, which will be led by Yoshiro Kavaoka - professor of patho-biological sciences and an expert on influenza and Ebola viruses from Washington University, will be funded with 18.3 million dollars from the National Institutes of Health USA. Its purpose is to study the detailed molecular mechanisms of infection of the cell, the cell response to a virus, and the interaction - host.

    U.S. government - the main source of funding for the entire project, hopes all this lead to the creation of a new generation of antiviral drugs against some of the most dangerous pathogens. This is extremely important because against Ebola and West Nile virus are currently no approved drugs and those against influenza quickly lose their effectiveness.

    The design of the test involves the measurement of a wide variety of parameters - such as specific to the virus and those specific to the host. Measurements will be made using the so-called. high-screened, wherein the complex machinery made ​​thousand measurements per second.

    Advantage of study of three different pathogens - influenza viruses, and Ebola WNV is that they have different target cells and organs in the body. This systematic approach allows identification of common and different pathways and mediators in the course of various infections. Common mediators are potential targets for future broad products, i.e. those having efficacy against a number of pathogens. Unique key for an infection metabolites target for future narrow-spectrum drugs.

    Buy West Nile Virus (WNV) products from Gentaur

    Published in News

    rna-dna-monoclonal-cytokes-anti-mouse-rat-knockViruses are not cells and cell structure, unlike bacteria, parasites, people and anything that is sure to take live. Note that life is first and viruses - the other. In fact, the majority of scientists consider viruses as a matter of the boundary between the living and the undead.

    How is this possible? Is not that a mistake?
     
    As is well known, living matter has the following immutable characteristics - ability to self-organize and self-reproduction. For this purpose, each living cell and in every living organism vital processes occur - feeding, respiration, excretion, etc., so to speak, keep cells and organisms alive. In viruses, however, things are very different.

    Generally, viruses are particles (but not cells!), Representing a small amount of DNA or RNA wrapped in a protein, fewer carbohydrates and / or lipids (fatty substances). Proteins on the surface of the viral envelope, which can have various forms, recognize and provide host cell of virus in it. When the virus enters the cell, its DNA is integrated in this cell that it "forces" to form virus particles assemble spontaneously and leave the cell.

    Viral just like living organisms, there are self-organization processes and reproduction. They, however, they are performed only in the host cell, and all other vital processes are absent altogether. By entering into the cell, viruses (which, incidentally, outside the cell are called virions) are completely dead particles. Only when entering it, they show some properties of living matter - samoorganizarane and reproduction. However, these qualities are not considered sufficient virus to be identified as living matter. For life is inherently inherent nutrition, respiration, excretion, etc. or summary speaking to a constant metabolism. Indeed, some organisms may greatly slow it down, but no body can stop it completely, and so called life.

    Viruses do not have their own structures to carry out metabolism, and harness resources and structures of the host cell to carry out its goals. Therefore, they can not be called living. Apparently, however, they are not dead matter, since if it gets into the cell organization and show a high capacity for self-reproduction - something completely alien to the undead.
     
    An interesting question is how the virus originated. It is believed that early in the evolution of the first primitive cells, viruses were parts of cells that are separate and distinct self-replicating particles. This theory is supported by the astonishing ease with which viruses penetrate into the cell and then subject yourself - it is placed entirely at their disposal, accepting them as part of ourselves.

    Published in News

    clinical trails dna rna monoclonal antibody targattMedicine for the treatment of cancer based on a virus destroying tumor cells for the first time successfully passed clinical trials in advanced stage, said U.S. pharmaceutical manufacturer Amgen.

    A statement from the company product has achieved the main objective of the Phase III clinical trial in patients with advanced melanoma - the most aggressive type of skin cancer. The results showed that 16% of patients who received treatment had a significant tumor poured lasting six months or more, compared with only 2% of the control group.

    A spokesman for the company declined to say whether the company will apply for registration to the FDA on the basis of this study.

    It contains the virus Talimogene laherparepvec, genetically modified in a way that causes him to multiply only in rapidly growing cells. The product is injected directly into the tumor, after which the virus enters the cancer cells and causes them to synthesize large amounts of granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor - the hormone that stimulates the maturation of immune cells. When cancerous cells die, they release new amounts of virus and acquired therein colony stimulating factor, which boost the immune system.

    The study was conducted in 400 patients, two thirds of whom received injections every two weeks. The rest of the participants received injections only granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor. According to Dr. Anthony Ribas, melanoma specialist at the University of Los Angeles, the study results are positive, but it is uncertain whether sufficient authorization for use.

    Published in News